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MAṆḌALA 1

Sūkta 8

 

1. Info

To:    indra
From:   madhucchandas vaiśvāmitra
Metres:   gāyatrī
 

 

2. Audio

 

▪   by South Indian brahmins

 

▪   by Sri Shyama Sundara Sharma and Sri Satya Krishna Bhatta. Recorded by © 2012 Sriranga Digital Software Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

 
 

 

3. Preferences

 
 

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Mandala. Sukta. Rik

 
   

Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik

 
   

Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik

 
 

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Padapatha

 

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3. Text

01.008.01   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.15.01    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.001   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

एंद्र॑ सान॒सिं र॒यिं स॒जित्वा॑नं सदा॒सहं॑ ।

वर्षि॑ष्ठमू॒तये॑ भर ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

एंद्र सानसिं रयिं सजित्वानं सदासहं ।

वर्षिष्ठमूतये भर ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

éndra sānasím rayím sajítvānam sadāsáham ǀ

várṣiṣṭhamūtáye bhara ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

endra sānasim rayim sajitvānam sadāsaham ǀ

varṣiṣṭhamūtaye bhara ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

आ । इ॒न्द्र॒ । सा॒न॒सिम् । र॒यिम् । स॒ऽजित्वा॑नम् । स॒दा॒ऽसह॑म् ।

वर्षि॑ष्ठम् । ऊ॒तये॑ । भ॒र॒ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

आ । इन्द्र । सानसिम् । रयिम् । सऽजित्वानम् । सदाऽसहम् ।

वर्षिष्ठम् । ऊतये । भर ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

ā́ ǀ indra ǀ sānasím ǀ rayím ǀ sa-jítvānam ǀ sadā-sáham ǀ

várṣiṣṭham ǀ ūtáye ǀ bhara ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

ā ǀ indra ǀ sānasim ǀ rayim ǀ sa-jitvānam ǀ sadā-saham ǀ

varṣiṣṭham ǀ ūtaye ǀ bhara ǁ

interlinear translation

O Indra [2], bring [9] for safeguard [8] wealth [4] conquering [3], victorious [5], stable [6], greatest [7].

01.008.02   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.15.02    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.002   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

नि येन॑ मुष्टिह॒त्यया॒ नि वृ॒त्रा रु॒णधा॑महै ।

त्वोता॑सो॒ न्यर्व॑ता ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

नि येन मुष्टिहत्यया नि वृत्रा रुणधामहै ।

त्वोतासो न्यर्वता ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

ní yéna muṣṭihatyáyā ní vṛtrā́ ruṇádhāmahai ǀ

tvótāso nyárvatā ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

ni yena muṣṭihatyayā ni vṛtrā ruṇadhāmahai ǀ

tvotāso nyarvatā ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

नि । येन॑ । मु॒ष्टि॒ऽह॒त्यया॑ । नि । वृ॒त्रा । रु॒णधा॑महै ।

त्वाऽऊ॑तासः । नि । अर्व॑ता ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

नि । येन । मुष्टिऽहत्यया । नि । वृत्रा । रुणधामहै ।

त्वाऽऊतासः । नि । अर्वता ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

ní ǀ yéna ǀ muṣṭi-hatyáyā ǀ ní ǀ vṛtrā́ ǀ ruṇádhāmahai ǀ

tvā́-ūtāsaḥ ǀ ní ǀ árvatā ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

ni ǀ yena ǀ muṣṭi-hatyayā ǀ ni ǀ vṛtrā ǀ ruṇadhāmahai ǀ

tvā-ūtāsaḥ ǀ ni ǀ arvatā ǁ

interlinear translation

by which [2], safeguarded by thee [7], with thee as fist [3], with war-horse [9] let we stop [6] Vritras [5].

01.008.03   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.15.03    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.003   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

इंद्र॒ त्वोता॑स॒ आ व॒यं वज्रं॑ घ॒ना द॑दीमहि ।

जये॑म॒ सं यु॒धि स्पृधः॑ ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

इंद्र त्वोतास आ वयं वज्रं घना ददीमहि ।

जयेम सं युधि स्पृधः ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

índra tvótāsa ā́ vayám vájram ghanā́ dadīmahi ǀ

jáyema sám yudhí spṛ́dhaḥ ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

indra tvotāsa ā vayam vajram ghanā dadīmahi ǀ

jayema sam yudhi spṛdhaḥ ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

इन्द्र॑ । त्वाऽऊ॑तासः । आ । व॒यम् । वज्र॑म् । घ॒ना । द॒दी॒म॒हि॒ ।

जये॑म । सम् । यु॒धि । स्पृधः॑ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

इन्द्र । त्वाऽऊतासः । आ । वयम् । वज्रम् । घना । ददीमहि ।

जयेम । सम् । युधि । स्पृधः ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

índra ǀ tvā́-ūtāsaḥ ǀ ā́ ǀ vayám ǀ vájram ǀ ghanā́ ǀ dadīmahi ǀ

jáyema ǀ sám ǀ yudhí ǀ spṛ́dhaḥ ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

indra ǀ tvā-ūtāsaḥ ǀ ā ǀ vayam ǀ vajram ǀ ghanā ǀ dadīmahi ǀ

jayema ǀ sam ǀ yudhi ǀ spṛdhaḥ ǁ

interlinear translation

O Indra [1], safeguarded by thee [2] let us [4] give [7] killing [6] thunderbolt [5], let us conquer [8] together [9] in the battle [10] enemies [11].

01.008.04   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.15.04    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.004   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

व॒यं शूरे॑भि॒रस्तृ॑भि॒रिंद्र॒ त्वया॑ यु॒जा व॒यं ।

सा॒स॒ह्याम॑ पृतन्य॒तः ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

वयं शूरेभिरस्तृभिरिंद्र त्वया युजा वयं ।

सासह्याम पृतन्यतः ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

vayám śū́rebhirástṛbhiríndra tváyā yujā́ vayám ǀ

sāsahyā́ma pṛtanyatáḥ ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

vayam śūrebhirastṛbhirindra tvayā yujā vayam ǀ

sāsahyāma pṛtanyataḥ ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

व॒यम् । शूरे॑भिः । अस्तृ॑ऽभिः । इन्द्र॑ । त्वया॑ । यु॒जा । व॒यम् ।

स॒स॒ह्याम॑ । पृ॒त॒न्य॒तः ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

वयम् । शूरेभिः । अस्तृऽभिः । इन्द्र । त्वया । युजा । वयम् ।

ससह्याम । पृतन्यतः ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

vayám ǀ śū́rebhiḥ ǀ ástṛ-bhiḥ ǀ índra ǀ tváyā ǀ yujā́ ǀ vayám ǀ

sasahyā́ma ǀ pṛtanyatáḥ ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

vayam ǀ śūrebhiḥ ǀ astṛ-bhiḥ ǀ indra ǀ tvayā ǀ yujā ǀ vayam ǀ

sasahyāma ǀ pṛtanyataḥ ǁ

interlinear translation

We [1] with heroes-[2]-archers [3], O Indra [4], with thee [5] as ally [6], let us [7] defeat [8] those who attack us [9].

01.008.05   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.15.05    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.005   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

म॒हाँ इंद्रः॑ प॒रश्च॒ नु म॑हि॒त्वम॑स्तु व॒ज्रिणे॑ ।

द्यौर्न प्र॑थि॒ना शवः॑ ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

महाँ इंद्रः परश्च नु महित्वमस्तु वज्रिणे ।

द्यौर्न प्रथिना शवः ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

mahā́m̐ índraḥ paráśca nú mahitvámastu vajríṇe ǀ

dyáurná prathinā́ śávaḥ ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

mahām̐ indraḥ paraśca nu mahitvamastu vajriṇe ǀ

dyaurna prathinā śavaḥ ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

म॒हान् । इन्द्रः॑ । प॒रः । च॒ । नु । म॒हि॒ऽत्वम् । अ॒स्तु॒ । व॒ज्रिणे॑ ।

द्यौः । न । प्र॒थि॒ना । शवः॑ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

महान् । इन्द्रः । परः । च । नु । महिऽत्वम् । अस्तु । वज्रिणे ।

द्यौः । न । प्रथिना । शवः ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

mahā́n ǀ índraḥ ǀ paráḥ ǀ ca ǀ nú ǀ mahi-tvám ǀ astu ǀ vajríṇe ǀ

dyáuḥ ǀ ná ǀ prathinā́ ǀ śávaḥ ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

mahān ǀ indraḥ ǀ paraḥ ǀ ca ǀ nu ǀ mahi-tvam ǀ astu ǀ vajriṇe ǀ

dyauḥ ǀ na ǀ prathinā ǀ śavaḥ ǁ

interlinear translation

Great [1] Indra [2] and [4] high [3], now [5] the greatness [6] let be [7] for the Thunderer [8], puissance [12] – like [10] heaven [9] by extension [11].

01.008.06   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.16.01    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.006   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

स॒मो॒हे वा॒ य आश॑त॒ नर॑स्तो॒कस्य॒ सनि॑तौ ।

विप्रा॑सो वा धिया॒यवः॑ ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

समोहे वा य आशत नरस्तोकस्य सनितौ ।

विप्रासो वा धियायवः ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

samohé vā yá ā́śata nárastokásya sánitau ǀ

víprāso vā dhiyāyávaḥ ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

samohe vā ya āśata narastokasya sanitau ǀ

viprāso vā dhiyāyavaḥ ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

स॒म्ऽओ॒हे । वा॒ । ये । आश॑त । नरः॑ । तो॒कस्य॑ । सनि॑तौ ।

विप्रा॑सः । वा॒ । धि॒या॒ऽयवः॑ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

सम्ऽओहे । वा । ये । आशत । नरः । तोकस्य । सनितौ ।

विप्रासः । वा । धियाऽयवः ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

sam-ohé ǀ vā ǀ yé ǀ ā́śata ǀ náraḥ ǀ tokásya ǀ sánitau ǀ

víprāsaḥ ǀ vā ǀ dhiyā-yávaḥ ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

sam-ohe ǀ vā ǀ ye ǀ āśata ǀ naraḥ ǀ tokasya ǀ sanitau ǀ

viprāsaḥ ǀ vā ǀ dhiyā-yavaḥ ǁ

interlinear translation

They attained [4] the Son <i.e. the god who is “born” in Rishi> [6]: either [2] those who [3] are men [5] in battle [1], or [9] {those, who are} full of understanding [10] illumined seers [8] in getting [7].

01.008.07   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.16.02    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.007   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

यः कु॒क्षिः सो॑म॒पात॑मः समु॒द्र इ॑व॒ पिन्व॑ते ।

उ॒र्वीरापो॒ न का॒कुदः॑ ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

यः कुक्षिः सोमपातमः समुद्र इव पिन्वते ।

उर्वीरापो न काकुदः ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

yáḥ kukṣíḥ somapā́tamaḥ samudrá iva pínvate ǀ

urvī́rā́po ná kākúdaḥ ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

yaḥ kukṣiḥ somapātamaḥ samudra iva pinvate ǀ

urvīrāpo na kākudaḥ ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

यः । कु॒क्षिः । सो॒म॒ऽपात॑मः । स॒मु॒द्रःऽइ॑व । पिन्व॑ते ।

उ॒र्वीः । आपः॑ । न । का॒कुदः॑ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

यः । कुक्षिः । सोमऽपातमः । समुद्रःऽइव । पिन्वते ।

उर्वीः । आपः । न । काकुदः ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

yáḥ ǀ kukṣíḥ ǀ soma-pā́tamaḥ ǀ samudráḥ-iva ǀ pínvate ǀ

urvī́ḥ ǀ ā́paḥ ǀ ná ǀ kākúdaḥ ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

yaḥ ǀ kukṣiḥ ǀ soma-pātamaḥ ǀ samudraḥ-iva ǀ pinvate ǀ

urvīḥ ǀ āpaḥ ǀ na ǀ kākudaḥ ǁ

interlinear translation

Who [1] is a belly [2] that drink Soma most [3], like ocean [4] distends [5] as if [8] wide [6] waters [7] from the peak [9].

01.008.08   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.16.03    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.008   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

ए॒वा ह्य॑स्य सू॒नृता॑ विर॒प्शी गोम॑ती म॒ही ।

प॒क्वा शाखा॒ न दा॒शुषे॑ ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

एवा ह्यस्य सूनृता विरप्शी गोमती मही ।

पक्वा शाखा न दाशुषे ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

evā́ hyásya sūnṛ́tā virapśī́ gómatī mahī́ ǀ

pakvā́ śā́khā ná dāśúṣe ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

evā hyasya sūnṛtā virapśī gomatī mahī ǀ

pakvā śākhā na dāśuṣe ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

ए॒व । हि । अ॒स्य॒ । सू॒नृता॑ । वि॒ऽर॒प्शी । गोऽम॑ती । म॒ही ।

प॒क्वा । शाखा॑ । न । दा॒शुषे॑ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

एव । हि । अस्य । सूनृता । विऽरप्शी । गोऽमती । मही ।

पक्वा । शाखा । न । दाशुषे ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

evá ǀ hí ǀ asya ǀ sūnṛ́tā ǀ vi-rapśī́ ǀ gó-matī ǀ mahī́ ǀ

pakvā́ ǀ śā́khā ǀ ná ǀ dāśúṣe ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

eva ǀ hi ǀ asya ǀ sūnṛtā ǀ vi-rapśī ǀ go-matī ǀ mahī ǀ

pakvā ǀ śākhā ǀ na ǀ dāśuṣe ǁ

interlinear translation

So [2], verily [1], the true word [4] of this {Indra} [3], abundant [5], full of the cows (perceptions from supramental Svar) [6], great [7], is like [10] a ripe [8] branch [9] for the giver [11].

01.008.09   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.16.04    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.009   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

ए॒वा हि ते॒ विभू॑तय ऊ॒तय॑ इंद्र॒ माव॑ते ।

स॒द्यश्चि॒त्संति॑ दा॒शुषे॑ ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

एवा हि ते विभूतय ऊतय इंद्र मावते ।

सद्यश्चित्संति दाशुषे ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

evā́ hí te víbhūtaya ūtáya indra mā́vate ǀ

sadyáścitsánti dāśúṣe ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

evā hi te vibhūtaya ūtaya indra māvate ǀ

sadyaścitsanti dāśuṣe ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

ए॒व । हि । ते॒ । विऽभू॑तयः । ऊ॒तयः॑ । इ॒न्द्र॒ । माऽव॑ते ।

स॒द्यः । चि॒त् । सन्ति॑ । दा॒शुषे॑ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

एव । हि । ते । विऽभूतयः । ऊतयः । इन्द्र । माऽवते ।

सद्यः । चित् । सन्ति । दाशुषे ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

evá ǀ hí ǀ te ǀ ví-bhūtayaḥ ǀ ūtáyaḥ ǀ indra ǀ mā́-vate ǀ

sadyáḥ ǀ cit ǀ sánti ǀ dāśúṣe ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

eva ǀ hi ǀ te ǀ vi-bhūtayaḥ ǀ ūtayaḥ ǀ indra ǀ mā-vate ǀ

sadyaḥ ǀ cit ǀ santi ǀ dāśuṣe ǁ

interlinear translation

So [2], verily [1], your [3] pervadings [4], O Indra [6], at once [8] become [10] safeguards [5] for such a man as me [7], for a giver [11].

01.008.10   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.1.16.05    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

01.03.010   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

ए॒वा ह्य॑स्य॒ काम्या॒ स्तोम॑ उ॒क्थं च॒ शंस्या॑ ।

इंद्रा॑य॒ सोम॑पीतये ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

एवा ह्यस्य काम्या स्तोम उक्थं च शंस्या ।

इंद्राय सोमपीतये ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

evā́ hyásya kā́myā stóma ukthám ca śáṃsyā ǀ

índrāya sómapītaye ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

evā hyasya kāmyā stoma uktham ca śaṃsyā ǀ

indrāya somapītaye ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

ए॒व । हि । अ॒स्य॒ । काम्या॑ । स्तोमः॑ । उ॒क्थम् । च॒ । शंस्या॑ ।

इन्द्रा॑य । सोम॑ऽपीतये ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

एव । हि । अस्य । काम्या । स्तोमः । उक्थम् । च । शंस्या ।

इन्द्राय । सोमऽपीतये ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

evá ǀ hí ǀ asya ǀ kā́myā ǀ stómaḥ ǀ ukthám ǀ ca ǀ śáṃsyā ǀ

índrāya ǀ sóma-pītaye ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

eva ǀ hi ǀ asya ǀ kāmyā ǀ stomaḥ ǀ uktham ǀ ca ǀ śaṃsyā ǀ

indrāya ǀ soma-pītaye ǁ

interlinear translation

So [2], verily [1], his [3] desirable [4] hymn [5] and [7] utterance [6] must be said [8] to Indra [9] for the drinking of the Soma [10].

Translations and commentaries by Sri Aurobindo

1. May 19151

1.8.8. Thus Mahi for Indra full of the rays, overflowing in her abundance, in her nature a happy truth, becomes as if a ripe branch for the giver of the sacrifice.

Mahi, then, is the luminous vastness of the Truth, she represents the Largeness, bṛhat, of the superconscient in us containing in itself the Truth, ṛtaṃ. She is, therefore, for the sacrificer like a branch covered with ripe fruit.

2. 1913–142

1.8.1. Bring to us, O Indra, for our increase a stable and victorious felicity ever forceful and fullest of lordship,

1.8.2. by which we shall hold back all obstructing things with destruction of confining limit, strengthened (or protected) by thee as thou warrest.

1.8.3. O Indra, by thee protected (or in that strength) we may make to blaze up thickly the force of the lightning and conquer utterly in the battle our enemies.

1.8.4. We by thy armed heroes, we, O Indra, by thee yoked to us in the fight may put forth might in the battle.

1.8.5. Vast (now) is Indra and very high, may his vastness dwell with the lord of the lightnings and brilliant might like the heaven in its wide-extending.

1.8.6. Those he beareth up who enjoy in their strength with safety of that which they have created or who are illumined and full of understanding.

1.8.7. For he is a gulf that drinks in the Soma utterly even as the sea drinks in the wide waters that have descended from the mountaintops.

1.8.8. So in him is the luminous Vastness rich in its truth and vigorous in its works like a ripe branch to the giver.

1.8.9. So in thee, O Indra, all wide pervadings and increasings become at once full of perception to him who can hold them, to him who gives.

1.8.10. So is the confirming of him and the expressing desirable and to be brought forth by speech,— for Indra to drink the Soma-wine.

3. Circa 19133

8. In this sense I shall take it. I translate the line “For thus Mahi the true, manifest in action, luminous becomes like a ripe branch to the giver” — or, again in better English, For thus Mahi the perfect in truth, manifesting herself in action, full of illumination, becomes as a ripe branch to the giver.

NOTES

The next passage to which I shall turn is the eighth verse of the eighth hymn, also to Indra, in which occurs the expression सूनृता ... गोमती मही, a passage which when taken in the plain and ordinary sense of the epithets sheds a great light on the nature of Mahi. Sunrita means really true and is opposed to anrita, false — for in the early Aryan speech su and would equally signify, well, good, very; and the euphonic n is of a very ancient type of sandhi — originally, it was probably no more than a strong anuswar — traces of which can still be found in Tamil; in the case of su this n euphonic seems to have been dropped after the movement of the literary Aryan tongue towards the modern principle of Sandhi,— a movement the imperfect progress of which we see in the Vedas; but by that time the form an, composed of privative a and the euphonic n, had become a recognised alternative form to a and the omission of the n would have left the meaning of words very ambiguous; therefore n was preserved in the negative form, omitted from the affirmative where its omission caused no inconvenience,— for to write âgni instead of anagni would be confusing, but to write svagni instead of sunagni would create no confusion. In the pair sunrita and anrita it is probable that the usage had become so confirmed, so much of an almost technical phraseology, that confirmed habit prevailed over new rule. The second meaning of the word is auspicious, derived from the idea “good or beneficent in its regular action”. The Vedic scholars give a third sense, quick, active; but this is probably due to confusion with an originally distinct word derived from the root नृ, to move on rapidly, to be strong, swift, active from which we have नृत् to dance, नृ and नर strong and a number of other derivatives, for although ri means to go, it does not appear that rita was used in the sense of motion or swiftness. In any case our choice (apart from unnecessary ingenuities) lies here between “auspicious” and “true”. If we take Mahi in the sense of earth, the first is its simplest and most natural significance. We shall have then to translate “the earth auspicious (or might it mean true in the sense observing the law of the seasons), wide-watered, full of cows becomes like a ripe branch to the giver.” This gives a clear connected sense, although gross and pedestrian and open to the objection that it has no natural and inevitable connection with the preceding verses. My objection is that sunrita and gomati seem to me to have in the Veda a different and deeper sense and that the whole passage becomes not only ennobled in sense, but clearer and more connected in sense if we give them that deeper significance. Gomatir ushasah in Kutsa’s hymn to the Dawn is certainly the luminous dawns; Saraswati in the third hymn who as chodayitri sunritanam chetanti sumatinam shines pervading all the actions of the understanding, certainly does so because she is the impeller to high truths, the awakener to right thoughts, clear perceptions and not because she is the impeller of things auspicious — a phrase which would have no sense or appropriateness to the context. Mahi is one of the three goddesses Ila, Saraswati and Mahi who are described as tisro devir mayobhuvah, the three goddesses born of delight or Ananda, and her companions being goddesses of knowledge, children of Mahas, she also must be a goddess of knowledge, not the earth; the word mahi also bears the sense of knowledge, intellect, and Mahas undoubtedly refers in many passages to the vijnana or supra-rational level of consciousness, the fourth Vyahriti of the Taittiriya Upanishad. What then prevents us from taking Mahi, here as there, in the sense of the goddess of suprarational knowledge or, if taken objectively, the world of Mahat? Nothing, except a tradition born in classical times when mahi was the earth and the new Nature-worship theory. In this sense I shall take it. I translate the line “For thus Mahi the true, manifest in action, luminous becomes like a ripe branch to the giver” — or, again in better English, For thus Mahi the perfect in truth, manifesting herself in action, full of illumination, becomes as a ripe branch to the giver. For the Yogin again the sense is clear. All things are contained in the Mahat, derived from the Mahat, depend on the Mahat, but we here in the movement of the alpam, have not our desire, are blinded and confined, enjoy an imperfect, erroneous and usually baffled and futile activity. It is only when we regain the movement of the Mahat, the large and uncontracted consciousness that comes from rising to the infinite,— it is only then that we escape from this limitation. She is perfect in truth, full of illumination; error and ignorance disappear; she manifests herself virapshi in a wide and various activity; our activities are enlarged, our desires are fulfilled. The connection with the preceding stanzas becomes clear. The Vritras, the great obstructors and upholders of limitation, are slain by the help of Indra, by the result of the yajnartham karma, by alliance with the armed gods in mighty internal battle; Indra, the god within our mental force, manifests himself as supreme and full of the nature of ideal truth from which his greatness weaponed with the vajra, vidyut or electric principle, derives (mahitwam astu vajrine). The mind, instinct with amrita, is then full of equality, samata; it drinks in the flood of activity of all kinds as the sea takes in the rivers. For the condition then results in which the ideal consciousness Mahi is like a ripe branch to the giver, when all powers and expansions of being at once (without obstacle as the Vritras are slain) become active in consciousness as masterful and effective knowledge or awareness (chit). This is the process prayed for by the poet. The whole hymn becomes a consecutive and intelligible whole, a single thought worked out logically and coherently and relating with perfect accuracy of ensemble and detail to one of the commonest experiences of Yogic fulfilment. In both these passages the faithful adherence to the intimations of language, Vedantic idea and Yogic experience have shed a flood of light, illuminating the obscurity of the Vedas, bringing coherence into the incoherence of the naturalistic explanation, close and strict logic, great depth of meaning with great simplicity of expression, and, as I shall show when I take up the final interpretation of the separate hymns, a rational meaning and reason of existence in that particular place for each word and phrase and a faultless and inevitable connection with what goes before and with what goes after.

 

1 The Secret of the Veda. IX. Saraswati and Her Consorts // CWSA.– Vol. 15.– The Secret of the Veda.– Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 1998, pp. 91-99. 1-st published: Arya: A Philosophical Review. Monthly.– Vol.1, No 10 – May 1915, pp. 593-601.

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2 CWSA.– Vol. 14.– Vedic and Philological Studies.– Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 2016, pp. 203-204.

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3 Note on the Word Go // CWSA.– Vol. 14.– Vedic and Philological Studies.– Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 2016, p. 99-110. 1-st published: Sri Aurobindo: Archives & Research: a biannual journal.– Volume 9, No1 (1985, April), pp. 50-60.

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