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MAṆḌALA 1

Sūkta 76

 

1. Info

To:    agni
From:   gotama rāhūgaṇa
Metres:   triṣṭubh
 

 

2. Audio

 

▪   by South Indian brahmins

 

▪   by Sri Shyama Sundara Sharma and Sri Satya Krishna Bhatta. Recorded by © 2012 Sriranga Digital Software Technologies Pvt. Ltd.

 
 

 

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3. Text

01.076.01   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.5.24.01    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

1.13.015   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

का त॒ उपे॑ति॒र्मन॑सो॒ वरा॑य॒ भुव॑दग्ने॒ शंत॑मा॒ का म॑नी॒षा ।

को वा॑ य॒ज्ञैः परि॒ दक्षं॑ त आप॒ केन॑ वा ते॒ मन॑सा दाशेम ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

का त उपेतिर्मनसो वराय भुवदग्ने शंतमा का मनीषा ।

को वा यज्ञैः परि दक्षं त आप केन वा ते मनसा दाशेम ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

kā́ ta úpetirmánaso várāya bhúvadagne śáṃtamā kā́ manīṣā́ ǀ

kó vā yajñáiḥ pári dákṣam ta āpa kéna vā te mánasā dāśema ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

kā ta upetirmanaso varāya bhuvadagne śaṃtamā kā manīṣā ǀ

ko vā yajñaiḥ pari dakṣam ta āpa kena vā te manasā dāśema ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

का । ते॒ । उप॑ऽइतिः । मन॑सः । वरा॑य । भुव॑त् । अ॒ग्ने॒ । शम्ऽत॑मा । का । म॒नी॒षा ।

कः । वा॒ । य॒ज्ञैः । परि॑ । दक्ष॑म् । ते॒ । आ॒प॒ । केन॑ । वा॒ । ते॒ । मन॑सा । दा॒शे॒म॒ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

का । ते । उपऽइतिः । मनसः । वराय । भुवत् । अग्ने । शम्ऽतमा । का । मनीषा ।

कः । वा । यज्ञैः । परि । दक्षम् । ते । आप । केन । वा । ते । मनसा । दाशेम ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

kā́ ǀ te ǀ úpa-itiḥ ǀ mánasaḥ ǀ várāya ǀ bhúvat ǀ agne ǀ śám-tamā ǀ kā́ ǀ manīṣā́ ǀ

káḥ ǀ vā ǀ yajñáiḥ ǀ pári ǀ dákṣam ǀ te ǀ āpa ǀ kéna ǀ vā ǀ te ǀ mánasā ǀ dāśema ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

kā ǀ te ǀ upa-itiḥ ǀ manasaḥ ǀ varāya ǀ bhuvat ǀ agne ǀ śam-tamā ǀ kā ǀ manīṣā ǀ

kaḥ ǀ vā ǀ yajñaiḥ ǀ pari ǀ dakṣam ǀ te ǀ āpa ǀ kena ǀ vā ǀ te ǀ manasā ǀ dāśema ǁ

interlinear translation

What [1] approaching [3] of mind [4] will be {acceptable} [6] for thee [2], for supreme [5], O Agni [7], what [9] thought [10] {will be} peaceful {for thee} [8]? Or [12] who [11] by sacrifices [13] has reached [17] everywhere [14] for thy [16] discernment [15]? Or [19] by what [18] mind [21] must {we} give [22] to thee [20]?

01.076.02   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.5.24.02    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

1.13.016   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

एह्य॑ग्न इ॒ह होता॒ नि षी॒दाद॑ब्धः॒ सु पु॑रए॒ता भ॑वा नः ।

अव॑तां त्वा॒ रोद॑सी विश्वमि॒न्वे यजा॑ म॒हे सौ॑मन॒साय॑ दे॒वान् ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

एह्यग्न इह होता नि षीदादब्धः सु पुरएता भवा नः ।

अवतां त्वा रोदसी विश्वमिन्वे यजा महे सौमनसाय देवान् ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

éhyagna ihá hótā ní ṣīdā́dabdhaḥ sú puraetā́ bhavā naḥ ǀ

ávatām tvā ródasī viśvaminvé yájā mahé saumanasā́ya devā́n ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

ehyagna iha hotā ni ṣīdādabdhaḥ su puraetā bhavā naḥ ǀ

avatām tvā rodasī viśvaminve yajā mahe saumanasāya devān ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

आ । इ॒हि॒ । अ॒ग्ने॒ । इ॒ह । होता॑ । नि । सी॒द॒ । अद॑ब्धः । सु । पु॒रः॒ऽए॒ता । भ॒व॒ । नः॒ ।

अव॑ताम् । त्वा॒ । रोद॑सी॒ इति॑ । वि॒श्व॒मि॒न्वे इति॑ वि॒श्व॒म्ऽइ॒न्वे । यज॑ । म॒हे । सौ॒म॒न॒साय॑ । दे॒वान् ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

आ । इहि । अग्ने । इह । होता । नि । सीद । अदब्धः । सु । पुरःऽएता । भव । नः ।

अवताम् । त्वा । रोदसी इति । विश्वमिन्वे इति विश्वम्ऽइन्वे । यज । महे । सौमनसाय । देवान् ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

ā́ ǀ ihi ǀ agne ǀ ihá ǀ hótā ǀ ní ǀ sīda ǀ ádabdhaḥ ǀ sú ǀ puraḥ-etā́ ǀ bhava ǀ naḥ ǀ

ávatām ǀ tvā ǀ ródasī íti ǀ viśvaminvé íti viśvam-invé ǀ yája ǀ mahé ǀ saumanasā́ya ǀ devā́n ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

ā ǀ ihi ǀ agne ǀ iha ǀ hotā ǀ ni ǀ sīda ǀ adabdhaḥ ǀ su ǀ puraḥ-etā ǀ bhava ǀ naḥ ǀ

avatām ǀ tvā ǀ rodasī iti ǀ viśvaminve iti viśvam-inve ǀ yaja ǀ mahe ǀ saumanasāya ǀ devān ǁ

interlinear translation

Come [2], O Agni [3], here [4], priest calling {the gods} [5], sit down [7] within {us} [6]. Be [11] invincible [8], good [9] leader [10] for us [12]. Let [13] all-embracing [16] both firmaments (Earth and Heaven) [15] increase [13] thee [14]. Do sacrifice [17] to the gods [20] for the great [18] right-mindedness [19].

01.076.03   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.5.24.03    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

1.13.017   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

प्र सु विश्वा॑न्र॒क्षसो॒ धक्ष्य॑ग्ने॒ भवा॑ य॒ज्ञाना॑मभिशस्ति॒पावा॑ ।

अथा व॑ह॒ सोम॑पतिं॒ हरि॑भ्यामाति॒थ्यम॑स्मै चकृमा सु॒दाव्ने॑ ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

प्र सु विश्वान्रक्षसो धक्ष्यग्ने भवा यज्ञानामभिशस्तिपावा ।

अथा वह सोमपतिं हरिभ्यामातिथ्यमस्मै चकृमा सुदाव्ने ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

prá sú víśvānrakṣáso dhákṣyagne bhávā yajñā́nāmabhiśastipā́vā ǀ

áthā́ vaha sómapatim háribhyāmātithyámasmai cakṛmā sudā́vne ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

pra su viśvānrakṣaso dhakṣyagne bhavā yajñānāmabhiśastipāvā ǀ

athā vaha somapatim haribhyāmātithyamasmai cakṛmā sudāvne ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

प्र । सु । विश्वा॑न् । र॒क्षसः॑ । धक्षि॑ । अ॒ग्ने॒ । भव॑ । य॒ज्ञाना॑म् । अ॒भि॒श॒स्ति॒ऽपावा॑ ।

अथ॑ । आ । व॒ह॒ । सोम॑ऽपतिम् । हरि॑ऽभ्याम् । आ॒ति॒थ्यम् । अ॒स्मै॒ । च॒कृ॒म॒ । सु॒ऽदाव्ने॑ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

प्र । सु । विश्वान् । रक्षसः । धक्षि । अग्ने । भव । यज्ञानाम् । अभिशस्तिऽपावा ।

अथ । आ । वह । सोमऽपतिम् । हरिऽभ्याम् । आतिथ्यम् । अस्मै । चकृम । सुऽदाव्ने ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

prá ǀ sú ǀ víśvān ǀ rakṣásaḥ ǀ dhákṣi ǀ agne ǀ bháva ǀ yajñā́nām ǀ abhiśasti-pā́vā ǀ

átha ǀ ā́ ǀ vaha ǀ sóma-patim ǀ hári-bhyām ǀ ātithyám ǀ asmai ǀ cakṛma ǀ su-dā́vne ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

pra ǀ su ǀ viśvān ǀ rakṣasaḥ ǀ dhakṣi ǀ agne ǀ bhava ǀ yajñānām ǀ abhiśasti-pāvā ǀ

atha ǀ ā ǀ vaha ǀ soma-patim ǀ hari-bhyām ǀ ātithyam ǀ asmai ǀ cakṛma ǀ su-dāvne ǁ

interlinear translation

Do burn [5] altogether [2] all [3] Rakshasas [4], O Agni [6], be [7] protector [9] of sacrifices [8] from the destroyers [9]; then [10] do bring [12] the Lord of Soma (Indra) [13] with two bright horses [14], {we} prepared [17] hospitality [15] for him [16], for the good giver [18].

01.076.04   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.5.24.04    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

1.13.018   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

प्र॒जाव॑ता॒ वच॑सा॒ वह्नि॑रा॒सा च॑ हु॒वे नि च॑ सत्सी॒ह दे॒वैः ।

वेषि॑ हो॒त्रमु॒त पो॒त्रं य॑जत्र बो॒धि प्र॑यंतर्जनित॒र्वसू॑नां ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

प्रजावता वचसा वह्निरासा च हुवे नि च सत्सीह देवैः ।

वेषि होत्रमुत पोत्रं यजत्र बोधि प्रयंतर्जनितर्वसूनां ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

prajā́vatā vácasā váhnirāsā́ ca huvé ní ca satsīhá deváiḥ ǀ

véṣi hotrámutá potrám yajatra bodhí prayantarjanitarvásūnām ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

prajāvatā vacasā vahnirāsā ca huve ni ca satsīha devaiḥ ǀ

veṣi hotramuta potram yajatra bodhi prayantarjanitarvasūnām ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

प्र॒जाऽव॑ता । वच॑सा । वह्निः॑ । आ॒सा । आ । च॒ । हु॒वे । नि । च॒ । स॒त्सि॒ । इ॒ह । दे॒वैः ।

वेषि॑ । हो॒त्रम् । उ॒त । पो॒त्रम् । य॒ज॒त्र॒ । बो॒धि । प्र॒ऽय॒न्तः॒ । ज॒नि॒तः॒ । वसू॑नाम् ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

प्रजाऽवता । वचसा । वह्निः । आसा । आ । च । हुवे । नि । च । सत्सि । इह । देवैः ।

वेषि । होत्रम् । उत । पोत्रम् । यजत्र । बोधि । प्रऽयन्तः । जनितः । वसूनाम् ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

prajā́-vatā ǀ vácasā ǀ váhniḥ ǀ āsā́ ǀ ā́ ǀ ca ǀ huvé ǀ ní ǀ ca ǀ satsi ǀ ihá ǀ deváiḥ ǀ

véṣi ǀ hotrám ǀ utá ǀ potrám ǀ yajatra ǀ bodhí ǀ pra-yantaḥ ǀ janitaḥ ǀ vásūnām ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

prajā-vatā ǀ vacasā ǀ vahniḥ ǀ āsā ǀ ā ǀ ca ǀ huve ǀ ni ǀ ca ǀ satsi ǀ iha ǀ devaiḥ ǀ

veṣi ǀ hotram ǀ uta ǀ potram ǀ yajatra ǀ bodhi ǀ pra-yantaḥ ǀ janitaḥ ǀ vasūnām ǁ

interlinear translation

And [6] { I } call [7] with fruitful [1] word [2] by mouth [4]: let [10] the carrier of the offerings [3] sit down [10] with the gods [12] here [11] within [8]. {Thou} acceptest [13] the office of hotra <of the priest carrying pilgrim-sacrifice> [14] and [15] of potra <of purification> [16], O Lord of sacrifice [17], do awake [18], O giver [19], O genitor [20] of riches [21].

01.076.05   (Mandala. Sukta. Rik)

1.5.24.05    (Ashtaka. Adhyaya. Varga. Rik)

1.13.019   (Mandala. Anuvaka. Rik)

Samhita Devanagari Accented

यथा॒ विप्र॑स्य॒ मनु॑षो ह॒विर्भि॑र्दे॒वाँ अय॑जः क॒विभिः॑ क॒विः सन् ।

ए॒वा हो॑तः सत्यतर॒ त्वम॒द्याग्ने॑ मं॒द्रया॑ जु॒ह्वा॑ यजस्व ॥

Samhita Devanagari Nonaccented

यथा विप्रस्य मनुषो हविर्भिर्देवाँ अयजः कविभिः कविः सन् ।

एवा होतः सत्यतर त्वमद्याग्ने मंद्रया जुह्वा यजस्व ॥

Samhita transliteration accented

yáthā víprasya mánuṣo havírbhirdevā́m̐ áyajaḥ kavíbhiḥ kavíḥ sán ǀ

evā́ hotaḥ satyatara tvámadyā́gne mandráyā juhvā́ yajasva ǁ

Samhita transliteration nonaccented

yathā viprasya manuṣo havirbhirdevām̐ ayajaḥ kavibhiḥ kaviḥ san ǀ

evā hotaḥ satyatara tvamadyāgne mandrayā juhvā yajasva ǁ

Padapatha Devanagari Accented

यथा॑ । विप्र॑स्य । मनु॑षः । ह॒विःऽभिः॑ । दे॒वान् । अय॑जः । क॒विऽभिः॑ । क॒विः । सन् ।

ए॒व । हो॒त॒रिति॑ । स॒त्य॒ऽत॒र॒ । त्वम् । अ॒द्य । अग्ने॑ । म॒न्द्रया॑ । जु॒ह्वा॑ । य॒ज॒स्व॒ ॥

Padapatha Devanagari Nonaccented

यथा । विप्रस्य । मनुषः । हविःऽभिः । देवान् । अयजः । कविऽभिः । कविः । सन् ।

एव । होतरिति । सत्यऽतर । त्वम् । अद्य । अग्ने । मन्द्रया । जुह्वा । यजस्व ॥

Padapatha transliteration accented

yáthā ǀ víprasya ǀ mánuṣaḥ ǀ havíḥ-bhiḥ ǀ devā́n ǀ áyajaḥ ǀ kaví-bhiḥ ǀ kavíḥ ǀ sán ǀ

evá ǀ hotaríti ǀ satya-tara ǀ tvám ǀ adyá ǀ ágne ǀ mandráyā ǀ juhvā́ ǀ yajasva ǁ

Padapatha transliteration nonaccented

yathā ǀ viprasya ǀ manuṣaḥ ǀ haviḥ-bhiḥ ǀ devān ǀ ayajaḥ ǀ kavi-bhiḥ ǀ kaviḥ ǀ san ǀ

eva ǀ hotariti ǀ satya-tara ǀ tvam ǀ adya ǀ agne ǀ mandrayā ǀ juhvā ǀ yajasva ǁ

interlinear translation

Thus [1] {thou} sacrificedst [6] to the gods [5] with offerings [4] of illumined [2] man [3], being [9] the seer [8] with seers [7]. O priest calling {the gods} [11], O very true [12], thou [13] now [14], O Agni [15], do perform the sacrifice [18] by ecstatic [16] tongue of flame [17].

Translations and commentaries by Sri Aurobindo

1. Circa 19151

1.76.1 वराय — supreme good शंका त उपेतिर्मनसो वराय भुवदग्ने शंतमा का मनीषा

दक्ष in sense of mental capacity, discernment.

cf सौमनसाय — 2

1.76.2 व् = foster, increase, not protect. अवतां त्वा रोदसी विश्वमिन्वे ॥

1.76.4 प्रजा in psychological sense प्रजावता वचसा आसा आ च हुवे

1.76.5 कविः — cf सत्यतर

2. 1913 – early 19142

1.76.1 वराय. S. तव मनसो निवारणायास्मास्ववस्थापनाय. This is a most improbable sense for वर. It is much better to take वर (= that which is वरणीय) in its ordinary Vedic significance of good, boon, thing desired, with a shade which makes it amount to “supreme good”, and मनसः with उपेतिः, ie, How shall the mind approach thee so that it may gain its desirable good? Or मनसो वराय may be taken together, “for the supreme state or desirable good of the mind”. In the one case the phrase anticipates & leads up to केन वा ते मनसा; in the second it anticipates and leads up to यजा महे सौमनसाय of v.2. ते मनसो no more goes together here than ते मनसा in the fourth pada of this verse.

मनीषा. S. स्तुतिः, “How shall our praise be most happiness-giving to thee”, ie there is no praise even suitable to thee, and he thinks the answer to को वा is न होऽपि. It certainly does not mean that any more than केन वा मनसा means that no one has the right mentality in the sacrifice. The series of questions merely express the seeking of the mind for the right way of approaching Agni, the right thought, मनीषा, the right mentality in the self-giving, मनस् , the power to embrace in the human mind the right judgment and discernment of the divine seer-will. मनीषा does not mean स्तुति in the Veda, but either the intellectual mind as distinguished from the wider मनस् which embraces the emotional mentality and sense-mind also, or else the intellectual thought that seeks for the Truth. Cf इमं स्तोमं .. सं महेमा मनीषया (1.94.1) which certainly does not mean “we will form the hymn [of] praise by the hymn of praise.” There is no reason for assigning different meanings to मनीषा here and in that passage. But Sayana can seldom forego an opportunity of making a word mean “hymn” or “food”.

शंतमा, not तव सुखकरी, but full for us of the bliss.

दक्षं . S. वृद्धिं बलं वा. Neither, but the judgment, discerning thought. ते must go surely with दक्षं not with यज्ञैः.

परि .. आप. परि gives the idea of “all round”, ie an embracing possession of the whole दक्ष.

Sayana’s rendering.

O Agni, what kind of approach should there be for stopping thy mind (keeping it with us)? what kind of hymn most gives thee happiness (there is probably none); who can get strength (or increase) by sacrifices to thee? or with what mind should we give to thee?

Psychological rendering.

How shall the mind of man approach thee for his supreme good? what thought, O Flame, must that be which carries with it the extreme bliss? who hath by sacrifices embraced all thy discerning? or with what mind shall we give to thee the offerings?

1.76.2 एहि होता takes up the idea of हवींषि implied in दाशेम. The answer to the questions of the first rik is that Agni, the Seer-Will, must himself come as the होता, the होमनिष्पादक (Sayana takes it wrongly here as देवानामाह्वाता) and bring about the right mentality by his sacrifice, महे सौमनसाय.

पुरएता, the leader in the march of the sacrifice towards the gods and the vast Truth, a leader who at once guides on the right path, पथिभी रजिष्ठैः and slays the besetters of the way, विश्वान्रक्षसः (5.3). The यज्ञ of which Agni is the होता is the अध्वरो यज्ञः.

अवतां. Not “protect”; Agni is अदब्धः पुरएता who burns all the Rakshasas; what need has he of protection who protects all? अवतां means “foster, increase” the Seer-Will. Let the earth and heaven, the physical and mental being, attain their full, all-embracing wideness, विश्वमिन्वे and by that wideness give full scope to the increase of the Seer-Will.

सौमनसाय. Perfect or right mentality including मनूषा, right thought enlightened by the दक्ष and not only the emotional part of the मनः. The सौमनस is vast, महे, as a result of the wideness of the Rodasi, the mental and physical being, which prepares the manifestation of the vast Truth; this wideness of the Rodasi is always a feature of the ascent of the gods, Agni or Indra, in that upward progress to the plane of the Truth, Swar, of which Agni here is the पुरएता, he who goes in front.

Sayana’s rendering.

Come, O Agni, sit here as the summoning priest; because thou art beyond the injury (of the Rakshasas) be well he who goes in front of us. May all-pervading earth and heaven protect thee; worship with sacrifice the divine ones for great grace.

Psychological rendering.

Hither come, O Flame, and take thy seat within as the priest of our oblation; be the unconquerable power that marches (leading and defending us) aright in our front; may our heaven and our earth, all-embracing, foster thee; sacrifice for a vast right-mindedness to the gods.

1.76.3 Indra, the Divine Mind-Power, is to be brought, after the path has been cleared of all Rakshasas, all wealth-detaining and destroying agencies, who prevent the सौमनस and break (अभिशस्ति) the uninterrupted progress of the अध्वर यज्ञ. Indra comes with his two bright powers to drink the purified wine of the Ananda offered in the clear and happy state of the mind (सौमनस) and to give in return the wealth of his world, स्वः (सुदाव्ने).

सोमपतिं. S. सर्वेषां सोमानां पालकं. Rather, lord of the Somas as he is of the गिरः, not in the sense that Soma is of the wine or Brihaspati is master of the ब्रह्माणि, because to him all speech and all outpourings of the intoxicating wine go as rivers to their sea, as herds to the bull, as women to their lord, अजोषा वृषभं पतिं.

कृ. Possibly = we have prepared; ie the Soma is ready for the divine guest.

Utterly burn before thee all the Rakshasas, O Flame; become the protector of our sacrifices against the destroyer; then bring to us the master of our Soma-pourings with his two shining steeds; for him we have prepared guest-honour, for the perfect giver.

1.76.4 प्रजावता. प्रजा here seems not to be अपत्य in the technical Vedic sense, but to refer to all fruits of the sacrifice; S. दातव्यापत्यादिफलोपेतेन.

वचसा. S. स्तुतः सन् . I cannot accept such a clumsy construction; it means that Agni upbears the sacrifice (वह्निः) by means of the word and by his flaming mouth. That is to say, if वह्निः really refers to Agni and आसा to his flame, आस्यस्थानीयया ज्वालया as S. suggests. In that case we have to understand असि with the first pada. But the natural rendering would be to take वह्निः as referring to the Rishi. “I, upholder of the word by the breath of my mouth, call thee by the fruitful word and do thou at once take thy seat with the gods.”

वह्निः. “Upholder, maintainer” either of the word (cf सखायः स्तोमवाहसः, गिर्वाहः etc) which is most appropriate here, — “as the sustainer of the divine chant by his breath he calls him with the fruitful word”, — or else of the whole sacrifice, the inspired word of the hymn and therefore the breath of the mouth being the means by which the वह्नि upholds the course and strength of the sacrifice. Cf 1.3.11, यज्ञं दधे सरस्वती.

आसा. 1. breath. 2. mouth. The first seems to me the appropriate sense; it is the Pranic force, मुख्यः प्राणः, by which the ब्रह्म is uplifted from the heart where it has been shaped and held in the mind, हृदा तष्टं.

आ च .. नि च, gives importance to the prepositions; there are two immediately successive actions, the motion of the Rishi drawing the Seer-Will to him by the word, the motion of Agni and the Gods entering and taking their settled station within him, नि.

वेषि. S. कामयस्व. I think it is यासि, the verb used in its pure indicative sense, “’tis thou takest upon thee the office of होता and the office of पोता, O master of sacrifice, (therefore) awake.”

यजत्र. S. यजनीय. Rather here seems to express the agent as in मित्र. Agni is here the sacrificer (होतः .. यजस्व v. 5) and not the god to whom sacrifice is given.

प्रयंतः. S. प्रकर्षेण नियंतः । वसून्यस्मदायत्तानि कुर्वन् ।

जनितः. S. आहुतिद्वारा सर्वस्य जनयितरग्ने. I presume S. means सर्वस्य धनस्य.

प्रयंतर्जनितः. जनितः he who brings the spiritual wealth into being in man. प्रयंतः he who brings it by his labour into right use or possession by man.

बोधि. S. अस्मान्बोधय. There is no reason to take transitively a verb usually intransitive.

Psychological rendering.

By the fruitful word I, bearer of the sacrifice by the force of my breath, call thee to me and, thou, take thy seat here within with the gods; ’tis thou takest on thee the oblation and the purifying; wake, O bringer into being, O bringer into use of our riches.

Sayana’s rendering.

(Hymned) by a fruitful word (he who is) the bearer of the offerings to the gods, him I call; and, thou, — sit down here with the gods, desire that which is done by the Hota and the Pota; wake us, O thou who entirely controllest riches and producest (all things).

1.76.5 नुषः. S. मनोःमन ज्ञाने. मनुषः does indeed mean the thinker, but the mental being generally, not Manu.

विप्रस्य. S. मेधाविनः, from विप् to be luminous — cf सूरिः which like सूर्यः means also luminous; men of knowledge are in the R.V. frequently called द्युमतः, luminous.

अयजः probably an aoristic past; “as thou hast always sacrificed”.

कविभिः कविः. S. renders कविः = क्रांतदर्शी, & कविभिः = मेधाविभिः. He makes a difference between the two senses in a note on 1.79.5, कविः क्रांतदर्शनो मेधावी वा. I presume that the former means a seer, one whose vision is active, the other merely an intelligent man or thinker. Perhaps S. is unwilling to attribute omniscient seerhood to men. But why should there be a difference of meaning between कविभिः कविः? I cannot understand this remarkable principle of composition attributed to the Rishis of putting the same word together in different cases or with different governing words in order to convey quite different ideas and with nothing to show the difference! It is only in Bedlam or else in Pundit-land that such a rule can stand. Mark that sometimes S. makes कवि mean simply क्रांत! As a matter of fact there is no reason to suppose that कवि ever means anything in the Vedas but a seer. Who are the कविs here? Not I think men, but the divine powers who assist the Seer-Will.

होतः. S. होमनिष्पादक. This passage होतः .. जुह्वा यजस्व and others show clearly enough that होता meant originally the priest who conducted or made the offering; the other sense देवानामाह्वाता is, in the R.V., extremely doubtful.

सत्यतर. S. अतिशयेन सत्सु साधो! An extremely clumsy and unnecessarily philological antic. Agni is frequently called सत्स, eg 1.1.5, होता कविक्रतुः सत्यश्चित्रश्रवस्तमः. Here also Agni is the होता, कविः & सत्यतरः. In 1.1.5 S. interprets सत्य giver of true results of the sacrifice, here in a precisely similar context, where the same words and ideas are repeated, he gives quite another and fantastic explanation. सत्य means true, full in his being of the truth of the ऋतं बृहत् of which the कवि is the knower, and therefore no doubt a giver of the riches of the truth to the sacrificer; but the latter idea cannot justly be read into सत्य when that word is divorced by Sayana from all idea of the ऋत & the काव्य. The comparative means ever growing in truth.

मंद्रया जुह्वा. S. हर्षयित्र्या होमसाधनभूतया स्रुचा. The जुहू is the flame of Agni by which he gives the offering to the gods, as Sayana’s explanation would lead us to believe; but perhaps he means the fire-tongue by स्रुच् . It is the flame or uplifting movement of the Will that lifts the Soma etc from the mind upward to the divine Superconscient with a motion of rapture — the rapturous will-movement, not, I think, the joy-giving will. The rapture comes from the state of सौमनस, clear of the Rakshasas etc, which Agni’s priesthood, the conduct of the Yoga by the divine Will, brings to man.

 

1 CWSA.– Vol. 14.– Vedic and Philological Studies.– Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 2016, pp. 455-456. (Part 4 № 5).

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2 CWSA.– Vol. 16.– Hymns to the Mystic Fire.– Pondicherry: Sri Aurobindo Ashram, 2013, pp. 559-582. (Part 3 № 14). 1-st published: Sri Aurobindo: Archives & Research: a biannual journal.– Volume 5, No1 (1981, April), pp. 3-8.; Sri Aurobindo: Archives & Research: a biannual journal.– Volume 2, No2 (1978, December), pp. 125-147.

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